15:87 We have given you the seven pairs, and the great Quran.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
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Edip-Layth 4:25 Whoever of you cannot afford to marry the acknowledging independent women, then from those young women whom you have contractual rights. God is more aware of your faith; you are equal to one another. You shall marry them with the permission of their family and give them their wage in kindness, to be protected, not for illicit sex or for taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who come with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the independent women of the retribution. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Compassionate.12
The Monotheist Group 4:25 And whoever of you cannot afford to marry the believing protected women, then from those committed to you by oath of the believing young women. God is more aware of your faith, some of you to each other. You shall marry them with the permission of their parents and give them their dowries in kindness; to be protected, not for illicit sex or taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who comes with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the protected women. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 4:25 And as for those of you who, owing to cir­cumstances, are not in a position29 to marry free believing women, [let them marry] believing maidens from among those whom you rightfully possess.30 And God knows all about your faith; each one of you is an issue of the other.31 Marry them, then, with their people's leave, and give them their dowers in an equitable manner - they being women who give themselves in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions.32 And when they are married, and thereafter become guilty of immoral conduct, they shall be liable to half the penalty to which free married women are liable.33 This [permission to marry slave-girls applies] to those of you who fear lest they stumble into evil.34 But it is for your own good to persevere in patience [and to abstain from such marriages]: and God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 4:25 Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. Marrying a slave shall be a last resort for those unable to wait. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:25 (As the Qur'an is being revealed to you O Messenger, the emancipation of the slaves, male and female, is steadily taking place.) A man among you who cannot find a free believing woman willing to marry him, should have no hesitation in asking the hand of a believing maiden from her guardian. God knows your beliefs and reiterates that all human beings are equal in the sight of God (17:70). Pay them a generous marital gift in kindness. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret relations. Since their upbringing has been deficient in the environment of slavery, their punishment will be half that of the free women, if they commit indecency after marriage. The permission to marry a bonded woman is for him who fears he might commit sin. The better recourse is freeing her first from bondage. Men and women must be patient and exercise self-control while waiting to get married. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Transliteration 4:25 Waman lam yastatiAA minkum tawlanan yankiha almuhsanati almu/minatifamin ma malakat aymanukum min fatayatikumualmu/minati waAllahu aAAlamu bi-eemanikumbaAAdukum min baAAdin fainkihoohunnabi-ithni ahlihinna waatoohunna ojoorahunna bialmaAAroofimuhsanatin ghayra masafihatin walamuttakhithati akhdanin fa-itha ohsinnafa-in atayna bifahishatin faAAalayhinna nisfu maAAala almuhsanati mina alAAathabi thalikaliman khashiya alAAanata minkum waan tasbiroo khayrunlakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
A 4:25 ومن لم يستطع منكم طولا ان ينكح المحصنت المومنت فمن ما ملكت ايمنكم من فتيتكم المومنت والله اعلم بايمنكم بعضكم من بعض فانكحوهن باذن اهلهن وءاتوهن اجورهن بالمعروف محصنت غير مسفحت ولا متخذت اخدان فاذا احصن فان اتين بفحشة فعليهن نصف ما على المحصنت من العذاب ذلك لمن خشى العنت منكم وان تصبروا خير لكم والله غفور رحيم
Edip-Layth 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
The Monotheist Group 4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
Muhammad Asad 4:26 God wants to make [all this] clear unto you, and to guide you onto the [righteous] ways of life of those who preceded you,35 and to turn unto you in His mercy: for God is all-knowing, wise.
Rashad Khalifa 4:26 GOD wills to explain things for you, and to guide you through past precedents, and to redeem you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:26 God will explain to you and guide you by the examples of those who were before you, and turn to you (in mercy). God is Knower, Wise.
Transliteration 4:26 Yureedu Allahu liyubayyina lakumwayahdiyakum sunana allatheena min qablikum wayatoobaAAalaykum waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
A 4:26 يريد الله ليبين لكم ويهديكم سنن الذين من قبلكم ويتوب عليكم والله عليم حكيم
Edip-Layth 4:27 God wants to pardon you, but those who follow their lusts want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
The Monotheist Group 4:27 And God wants to pardon you, but those who follow desires want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
Muhammad Asad 4:27 And God wants to turn unto you in His mercy, whereas those who follow [only] their own lusts want you to drift far away from the right path.36
Rashad Khalifa God's Mercy 4:27 GOD wishes to redeem you, while those who pursue their lusts wish that you deviate a great deviation.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:27 God turns to you in kindness, while those who follow their desires want that you drift far away from the right path. 7
Transliteration 4:27 WaAllahu yureedu an yatoobaAAalaykum wayureedu allatheena yattabiAAoona alshshahawatian tameeloo maylan AAatheeman
A 4:27 والله يريد ان يتوب عليكم ويريد الذين يتبعون الشهوت ان تميلوا ميلا عظيما
Edip-Layth 4:28 God wants to make easy for you; and humankind was created weak.13
The Monotheist Group 4:28 God wants to make easy for you; and mankind was created weak.
Muhammad Asad 4:28 God wants to lighten your burdens:37 for man has been created weak.
Rashad Khalifa 4:28 GOD wishes to lighten your burden, for the human being is created weak.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:28 God wishes to lighten your burden with His guidance. The human being is created weak, having the tendency to fall victim to his own selfish desires. 8
Transliteration 4:28 Yureedu Allahu an yukhaffifa AAankumwakhuliqa al-insanu daAAeefan
A 4:28 يريد الله ان يخفف عنكم وخلق الانسن ضعيفا
Edip-Layth Avoid Major Sins 4:29 O you who acknowledge, do not consume your money between you unjustly, except through a trade, which is mutually agreed by you. Do not kill yourselves; God is Compassionate towards you.
The Monotheist Group 4:29 O you who believe, do not consume your money between you unjustly, except through a trade which is mutually agreed by you. And do not kill yourselves; God is Merciful towards you.
Muhammad Asad 4:29 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not devour one another's possessions wrongfully - not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement38 - and do not destroy one another: for, behold, God is indeed a dispenser of grace unto you!
Rashad Khalifa Murder, Suicide, and Illicit Gains Prohibited 4:29 O you who believe, do not consume each others' properties illicitly - only mutually acceptable transactions are permitted. You shall not kill yourselves. GOD is Merciful towards you.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:29 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not consume one another's wealth wrongfully, not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement. Do not destroy one another, and thus do not destroy your own 'self'. Certainly, God has been Merciful to you." 9
Transliteration 4:29 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatiliilla an takoona tijaratan AAan taradinminkum wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kanabikum raheeman
A 4:29 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تاكلوا امولكم بينكم بالبطل الا ان تكون تجرة عن تراض منكم ولا تقتلوا انفسكم ان الله كان بكم رحيما
Edip-Layth 4:30 Whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him into a fire; and this for God is very easy.
The Monotheist Group 4:30 And whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him to a Fire; and this for God is very easy.
Muhammad Asad 4:30 And as for him who does this with malicious intent and a will to do wrong39 - him shall We, in time, cause to endure [suffering through] fire: for this is indeed easy for God.
Rashad Khalifa 4:30 Anyone who commits these transgressions, maliciously and deliberately, we will condemn him to Hell. This is easy for GOD to do.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:30 Whoever does that through aggression and injustice, We shall soon cast him into the fire. And it is easy for God.
Transliteration 4:30 Waman yafAAal thalika AAudwananwathulman fasawfa nusleehi naran wakanathalika AAala Allahi yaseeran
A 4:30 ومن يفعل ذلك عدونا وظلما فسوف نصليه نارا وكان ذلك على الله يسيرا
Edip-Layth 4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
The Monotheist Group 4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
Muhammad Asad 4:31 If you avoid the great sins, which you have been enjoined to shun, We shall efface your [minor] bad deeds, and shall cause you to enter an abode of glory.40
Rashad Khalifa 4:31 If you refrain from committing the gross sins that are prohibited for you, we will remit your sins, and admit you an honorable admittance.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:31 If you refrain from the great transgressions that you have been forbidden to do, We shall remit your misdeeds and admit you through a gate of honor (in this world and in the Hereafter).
Transliteration 4:31 In tajtaniboo kaba-ira matunhawna AAanhu nukaffir AAankum sayyi-atikum wanudkhilkummudkhalan kareeman
A 4:31 ان تجتنبوا كبائر ما تنهون عنه نكفر عنكم سياتكم وندخلكم مدخلا كريما
Edip-Layth Each Gender Has Own Qualities 4:32 Do not envy what God has favored some of you over others. For the men is a portion of what they gained, and for the women is a portion of what they gained. Ask God from His favor, God is knowledgeable over all things.
The Monotheist Group 4:32 And do not envy what God has favored some of you over others. For the men is a portion of what they gained, and for the women is a portion of what they gained. And ask God from His favor, God is knowledgeable over all things.
Muhammad Asad 4:32 Hence, do not covet the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a benefit from what they earn, and women shall have a benefit from what they earn. Ask, therefore, God [to give you] out of His bounty: behold, God has indeed full knowledge of everything.
Rashad Khalifa Men and Women Endowed With Unique Qualities 4:32 You shall not covet the qualities bestowed upon each other by GOD; the men enjoy certain qualities, and the women enjoy certain qualities. You may implore GOD to shower you with His grace. GOD is fully aware of all things.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:32 Do not covet the bounties (and qualities) that God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a portion from what they earn, and women shall have a portion from what they earn. Therefore, seek out of God's bounty (to the best of your abilities). God is a Witness to everything. 10
Transliteration 4:32 Wala tatamannaw ma faddalaAllahu bihi baAAdakum AAala baAAdinlilrrijali naseebun mimma iktasaboowalilnnisa-i naseebun mimma iktasabnawais-aloo Allaha min fadlihi inna Allahakana bikulli shay-in AAaleeman
A 4:32 ولا تتمنوا ما فضل الله به بعضكم على بعض للرجال نصيب مما اكتسبوا وللنساء نصيب مما اكتسبن وسلوا الله من فضله ان الله كان بكل شىء عليما
Edip-Layth 4:33 For each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. Those whom are dependent on you, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
The Monotheist Group 4:33 And for each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. And those pledged by your oath, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
Muhammad Asad 4:33 And unto everyone have We appointed heirs to what he may leave behind: parents, and near kinsfolk, and those to whom you have pledged your troth41 give them, therefore, their share. Behold, God is indeed a witness unto everything.
Rashad Khalifa Do Not Object to the Inheritance Laws Proposed by God 4:33 For each of you, we have designated shares from the inheritance left by the parents and the relatives. Also those related to you through marriage, you shall give them their due share. GOD witnesses all things.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:33 We have ordained the writing of will, and for each of you are the designated shares in the property left by the parents and the relatives. As for those to whom you have solemnly pledged, give them in your life. God is Witness over all things and events. 11
Transliteration 4:33 Walikullin jaAAalna mawaliyamimma taraka alwalidani waal-aqraboonawaallatheena AAaqadat aymanukum faatoohumnaseebahum inna Allaha kana AAalakulli shay-in shaheedan
A 4:33 ولكل جعلنا مولى مما ترك الولدان والاقربون والذين عقدت ايمنكم فاتوهم نصيبهم ان الله كان على كل شىء شهيدا
Edip-Layth In Case of Disloyalty 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has gifted them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The reformed women are devotees and protectors of privacy what God has protected. As for those women from whom you fear disloyalty, then you shall advise them, abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate them; if they obey you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.14
The Monotheist Group 4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has bestowed on them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The upright women are dutiful; keeping private the personal matters for what God keeps watch over. As for those women from whom you fear desertion, then you shall advise them, and abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate from them. If they respond to you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.
Muhammad Asad 4:34 MEN SHALL take full care of women with the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on the former than on the latter,42 and with what they may spend out of their possessions. And the right­eous women are the truly devout ones, who guard the intimacy which God has [ordained to be] guar­ded.43 And as for those women whose ill-will44 you have reason to fear, admonish them [first]; then leave them alone in bed; then beat them;45 and if thereupon they pay you heed, do not seek to harm them. Behold, God is indeed most high, great!
Rashad Khalifa Do Not Beat Your Wife 4:34 The men are made responsible for the women, 8 and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (you may use negative incentives like) deserting them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.
Shabbir Ahmed 4:34 Men are the protectors and supporters of women. They shall take full care of women with what they spend of their wealth. God has made men to excel in some areas and women to excel in some areas. Men should ensure that women are able to stand at their feet in the society. So, righteous women are obedient to God's Ordinances and guard the moral values even in privacy, the values that God has commanded to be guarded. If you experience ill-treatment from them, apprise them of possible consequences. Next, leave them in their resting places, but keep admonishing them with examples. If they pay heed to you, do not seek a way against them. God is Most High, Great. 12
Transliteration 4:34 Alrrijalu qawwamoonaAAala alnnisa-i bima faddalaAllahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabimaanfaqoo min amwalihim faalssalihatu qanitatunhafithatun lilghaybi bima hafithaAllahu waallatee takhafoonanushoozahunna faAAithoohunna waohjuroohunnafee almadajiAAi waidriboohunna fa-in ataAAnakumfala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kanaAAaliyyan kabeeran
A 4:34 الرجال قومون على النساء بما فضل الله بعضهم على بعض وبما انفقوا من امولهم فالصلحت قنتت حفظت للغيب بما حفظ الله والتى تخافون نشوزهن فعظوهن واهجروهن فى المضاجع واضربوهن فان اطعنكم فلا تبغوا عليهن سبيلا ان الله كان عليا كبيرا
End Notes
Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 12 (4:25)
Slavery as an evil practice of Pharaoh and other polytheists is abolished by the Quran (3:79; 4:3,25,92; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32-33; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39-42; 79:24). No wonder, this verse emphasizes the equality between men and women, between the free and those who were unjustly enslaved by polytheists. See 60:10. God issues a lighter penalty for formerly slave women who commit adultery because of their past. Their tragic history and experience is considered a mitigating factor. This rule, at the same time, rejects the Sunni and Shiite punishment for adultery (death), since there cannot be half of a capital punishment. See 24:2.

Edip-Layth - End Note 13 (4:28)
God created humans in an excellent design (32:7; 64:3; 82:7; 95:4), yet we humans may lower ourselves to the lowest level by following the teachings of devil (95:5). It is interesting to see the passive voice when degeneration of human nature is mentioned. The Quran does not say "we made humans weak," but it says, "humans were made weak." Thus, whenever our weakness, impatience, or pessimism is mentioned the passive voice is used (4:28; 21:37; 70:19). Through this peculiar language, the Best Designer and the Ultimate Creator who created is in best design with freedom of choice, reminds us the negative impact of wrong choices on our excellent design. See 57:22-23.

Edip-Layth - End Note 14 (4:34)
As I discussed extensively, in Türkçe Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar (Errors in Turkish Translation of the Quran, Istanbul, 1992-1998) and in English article, Beating Women or Beating Around the Bush (Unorthodox Articles, Internet, 1998), four key words or phrases have been mistranslated by traditional translators. To justify the misogynistic and patriarchal practices, deliberately or unknowingly, a majority of translators render the phrase kawamuna ala al-nisa as "in charge of women" rather than "providers for women" or "observant of women." Interestingly, the same translators translate the same verb mentioned in 4:135; 5:8; 4:127; 2:229; 20:14; 55:9 as "observe/maintain." When the same verb is used to depict a relationship between man and woman, it somehow magically transforms into a prescription of hierarchy and authority. The second key word that is commonly mistranslated is iDRiBuhunna. In almost all translations, you will see it translated as "scourge," or "beat" or "beat (lightly)". The verb DaRaBa is a multiple-meaning verb akin to English ‘strike’ or ‘get.’ The Quran uses the same verb with various meanings, such as, to travel, to get out (3:156; 4:101; 38:44; 73:20; 2:273), to strike (2:60,73; 7:160; 8:12; 20:77; 24:31; 26:63; 37:93; 47:4), to beat (8:50), to beat or regret (47:27), to set up (43:58; 57:13), to give (examples) (14:24,45; 16:75,76,112; 18:32,45; 24:35; 30:28,58; 36:78; 39:27,29; 43:17; 59:21; 66:10,11), to take away, to ignore (43:5), to condemn (2:61), to seal, to draw over (18:11), to cover (24:31), and to explain (13:17). It is again interesting that the scholars pick the meaning BEAT, among the many other alternatives, when the relationship between man and woman is involved, a relationship that is defined by the Quran with mutual love and care (30:21). The third word that has been traditionally mistranslated is the word NuSHuZ as "rebellion" or "disobedience" or "opposition" to men. If we study 4:34 carefully we will find a clue that leads us to translate that word as embracing a range of related ideas, from "flirting" to "engaging in an extramarital affair" – indeed, any word or words that reflects the range of disloyalty in marriage. The clue is the phrase before nushuz, which reads: ". . . they honor them according to God's commandments, even when alone in their privacy." This phrase emphasizes the importance of loyalty in marital life, and helps us to make better sense of what follows. Interestingly, the same word, nushuz, is used later in the same chapter, in 4:128 – but it is used to describe the misbehavior of husbands, not wives, as it was in 4:34. In our view, the traditional translation of nushuz, that is, "opposition," will not fit in both contexts. However, the understanding of nushuz as marital disloyalty, in a variety of forms, is clearly appropriate for both 4:34 and 4:128. The fourth word is the word QaNiTat, which means "devoted to God," and in some verses it describes both man and woman (2:116,238; 3:17,43; 16:120; 30:26; 33:31,35; 39:9; 66:5,12). Though this word is mostly translated correctly as "obedient," when read in the context of the above-mentioned distortion it conveys a false message as if to imply that women must be "obedient" to their husbands as their inferior, while the word refers to obedience to God's law. The word is mentioned as a general description of Muslim women (66:12), and more interestingly the description of Mary who, according to the Quran, did not even have a husband! (66:12). The traditional distortion of this verse was first questioned by Edip Yuksel in his book, "Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar" (Errors in Turkish Translations) (1992, Istanbul). For a detailed discussion on verse 4:34, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction. After the revelation of the Quran, Muslim scholars turned back to the days of ignorance and they were supported by some Jewish and Christian scholars who apparently converted to Islam yet did not experience a paradigm change. These semi-converts and those Arabs who longed for the old culture of ignorance combined their forces together to take back the rights of women recognized and promoted by the Quran. The rights of women in the West have been recognized through the separation of church and state; however the culture is still basically a male dominant one and thus western women are objectified and exploited tremendously in the business world. The western culture is deeply influenced by the teaching of Christianity originating from the misogynistic authors of Old Testament and St. Paul (not Jesus) who subordinates women to men. For instance, see Ephesians 5:22-33; Colossians 3:18- 19; 1 Peter 3:1-7. "Let your women keep silent in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak; but they are to be submissive, as the law also says" (I Corinthians 14: 34). "For a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. For man is not from woman, but woman from man. Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man" (I Corinthians 11:6-9). "Let a women learn in silence with all submission. And do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. Nevertheless, she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love and holiness, with self-control" (I Timothy 2:11- 15). St. Paul's misogynistic teaching is a reflection and extension of a historical trend. The Old Testament contains many man-made misogynist teachings. For instance, a woman is considered unclean for one week if she gives birth to a son, but unclean for two weeks if she gives birth to a daughter (Leviticus 12:1- 5). The Quran prohibits a sexual relationship with a menstruating woman, not because she is dirty, but because menstruation is painful (2:222). The purpose is to protect women's health from being burdened by the sexual desires of their husbands. However, the male authors of the Old Testament, exaggerated and generalized this divine prohibition so much so that they turned menstruation into a reason for a woman’s humiliation, isolation, and punishment (Leviticus 15:19-33). Christianity puts all the blame on the shoulders of women for the troubles in this world. Yet, according to the Quran, we are created from one person (nafs), not one man (4:1). Furthermore, it was not Eve, but it was both Adam and his spouse who were deceived in the Paradise (2:30-39; 7:19-27). The Old Testament contains hyperbolic exaggerations and bizarre practices. For some examples, See the footnote of 4:119.

Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 29 (4:25)
The phrase lam yastati tawlan is often taken to mean "he is not in a position to afford", i.e., in the financial sense; but Muhammad 'Abduh very convincingly expresses the view that it applies to all manner of preventive circumstances, be they of a material, personal or social nature (Manar V, 19).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 30 (4:25)
In this context, ma malakat aymanukum (lit., "those whom your right hands possess") denotes women who were captured in a holy war and have subsequently embraced Islam. In the above phrase, the pronoun "you" refers to the community as a whole.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 31 (4:25)
I.e., since all human beings - whatever their outward "social status" - are members of one and the same human family, and are therefore equal to one another in the sight of God (cf. 3:195), it is only the strength or weakness of faith which makes one person superior or inferior to another.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 32 (4:25)
Lit., "and not taking unto themselves secret love-companions". This passage lays down in an unequivocal manner that sexual relations with female slaves are permitted only on the basis of marriage, and that in this respect there is no difference between them and free women; consequently, concubinage is ruled out.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 33 (4:25)
The weaker social status of a slave makes her, obviously, more accessible to temptation than a free married woman is presumed to be.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 34 (4:25)
I.e., to those who for one reason or another are unable to marry free women and are, at the same time, not equal to the temptations arising from celibacy. As is made clear in the next sentence, the Qur'an discourages such marriages - obviously with a view to removing a major attraction from the institution of slavery as such, and thus promoting its abolition.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 35 (4:26)
An allusion to the genuine religious teachings of the past, which aimed at bringing about a harmony between man's physical nature and the demands of his spirit - a harmony which is destroyed whenever asceticism is postulated as the only possible alternative to licentiousness (see also note on surah 2, verse 143). This allusion arises from the discussion of sexual morality in the preceding passages devoted to marital relations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 36 (4:27)
Lit., "want you to deviate with a tremendous deviation".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 37 (4:28)
I.e., to remove, by means of His guidance, all possibility of conflict between man's spirit and his bodily urges, and to show him a way of life in which these two elements of human nature can be harmonized and brought to full fruition.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 38 (4:29)
If the particle illa preceding the above clause is given its usual meaning of "except" or "unless it be", the phrase ought to be rendered thus: "unless it be [an act of] trade based on mutual agreement". This formulation, however, has baffled many a commentator: for, if taken literally, it would imply that wrongful profits from trading based on mutual agreement are excepted from the general prohibition, "Devour not one another's possessions wrongfully"- a supposition impossible to maintain in view of the ethics postulated by the Qur'an. To obviate this difficulty, most of the commentators express the opinion that the particle illa has in this context the meaning of "but", and that the clause ought to be understood as follows: "but it is lawful for you to profit from one another's possessions by way of legitimate trade based on mutual agreement". However, quite apart from the fact that this interpretation is highly laboured and artificial, it does not explain why "legitimate trade" should have been singled out here as a sole means of lawfully deriving economic benefits from one another - for, as Razi, rightly points out in his commentary on this verse, "it is no less lawful to benefit economically through a gift, a bequest, a legal inheritance, alms, a dower, or an indemnity for injuries received: for there are, aside from trade, many ways of acquiring possessions [lawfully]". Why, then, should trade alone have been stressed? - and, moreover, stressed in a context not particularly devoted to matters of trade? A really satisfactory answer to this puzzle can, in my opinion, be obtained only through a linguistic consideration of the particle illa. Apart from its usual connotation of "except" or "unless it be", it has sometimes - as has been pointed out in both Qamus and Mughni - the meaning of the simple conjunction "and" (wa); similarly, if it is preceded by a negative clause, it can be synonymous with "nor" or "and neither" (wa-la): as, for instance, in 27:10-11, "no fear need the message-bearers have in My Presence, and neither (illa) need he who...", etc. Now if we apply this particular use of illa to the passage under consideration, we arrive at the reading, "nor [shall you do it] by means of trade based on mutual agreement", or simply, "not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement" - whereupon the meaning immediately becomes obvious: the believers are prohibited from devour­ing another person's possessions wrongfully even if that other person - being the weaker party - agrees to such a deprivation or exploitation under the stress of circumstances. The reading adopted by me logically connects, moreover, with verse 32, which admonishes the believers not to covet one another's possessions.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 39 (4:30)
Lit., "by way of [deliberate] transgression and wrongdoing" ('udwanan wa-zulman).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 40 (4:31)
I.e., paradise. However, according to some of the commentators, the expression mudkhal denotes not the place but the manner of "entering" (Razi) - in which case the above phrase may be rendered thus: "We shall cause you to enter [upon your afterlife] in a state of glory".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 41 (4:33)
I.e., wives and husbands (Abu Muslim, as quoted by Razi).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 42 (4:34)
Lit., "more on some of them than on the others".- The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or a person). Thus, qama ala l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of moral responsibility: and it is because of the last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take full care of women".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 43 (4:34)
Lit., "who guard that which cannot be perceived (al-ghayb) because God has [willed it to be] guarded".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 44 (4:34)
The term nushuz (lit., "rebellion"- here rendered as "ill-will") comprises every kind of deliberate bad behaviour of a wife towards her husband or of a husband towards his wife, including what is nowadays described as "mental cruelty"; with reference to the husband, it also denotes "ill-treatment", in the physical sense, of his wife (cf. verse 128 of this surah). In this context, a wife's "ill-will" implies a deliberate, persistent breach of her marital obligations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 45 (4:34)
It is evident from many authentic Traditions that the Prophet himself intensely detested the idea of beating one's wife, and said on more than one occasion, "Could any of you beat his wife as he would beat a slave, and then lie with her in the evening?" (Bukhari and Muslim). According to another Tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens" (Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Hibban and Hakim, on the authority of Iyas ibn 'Abd Allah; Ibn Hibban, on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas; and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Umm Kulthum). When the above Qur'an-verse authorizing the beating of a refractory wife was revealed, the Prophet is reported to have said: "I wanted one thing, but God has willed another thing - and what God has willed must be best" (see Manar V, 74). With all this, he stipulated in his sermon on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, shortly before his death, that beating should be resorted to only if the wife "has become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct", and that it should be done "in such a way as not to cause pain (ghayr mubarrih)"; authentic Traditions to this effect are found in Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. On the basis of these Traditions, all the authorities stress that this "beating", if resorted to at all, should be more or less symbolic - "with a toothbrush, or some such thing" (Tabari, quoting the views of scholars of the earliest times), or even "with a folded handkerchief" (Razi); and some of the greatest Muslim scholars (e.g., Ash-Shafi'i) are of the opinion that it is just barely permissible, and should preferably be avoided: and they justify this opinion by the Prophet's personal feelings with regard to this problem.

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 7 (4:27)
They would rather have no laws to constrain their desires

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 8 (4:28)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 9 (4:29)
So you must be merciful to others. 2:275, 53:39. Illa in this verse means 'not even' and not 'except'. 2:188, 26:181

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 10 (4:32)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 11 (4:33)

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 12 (4:34)
Qawwam = Protector = Maintainer = One who helps others to stand at their feet. Nushooz = Ill-treatment = Rebellion = To stand up (2:259, 58:11) = To stand up against virtue = Mental abuse = Domestic violence = To rebel against the permanent moral values. Wa'az = Admonishment = To apprise of consequences (2:231, 3:66). Dharb = Example (13:17, 16:74, 36:13) = To stop or prevent (8:11, 43:5) = To embark upon a journey = Strike the road or begin to travel (4:101) = To give examples (4:34, 13:17, 16:74, 36:13, 43:58) = To withdraw (43:5)

Rashad Khalifa - The Final Testament
Rashad Khalifa - End Note 8 (4:34)
This expression simply means that God is appointing the husband as "captain of the ship." Marriage is like a ship, and the captain runs it afterdue consultation with his officers. A believing wife readily accepts God'sappointment, without mutiny.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note (4:34)


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