5:18 The Jews and the Nazarenes said, "We are God's children and His loved ones." Say, "Then why does He punish you for your sins?" No, you are merely humans from what He has created. He forgives whom He pleases, and He punishes whom He pleases. To God is the sovereignty of heavens, earth, and all that is in-between, and to Him is the destiny.
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
 
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Edip-Layth 2:173 He has only forbidden for you what is already dead, the blood, the meat of pig, and what was dedicated to other than God. Whoever finds himself forced out of need and without disobedience or animosity, there is no sin upon him. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group 2:173 He has only forbidden for you what is already dead, and the blood, and the meat of pig, and what was dedicated to other than God. Whoever finds himself forced out of need and without disobedience or animosity, then there is no sin upon him. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 2:173 He has forbidden to you only carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that over which any name other than God's has been invoked;139 but if one is driven by necessity - neither coveting it nor exceeding his immediate need -no sin shall be upon him: for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 2:173 He only prohibits for you the eating of animals that die of themselves (without human interference), blood, the meat of pigs, and animals dedicated to other than GOD. If one is forced (to eat these), without being malicious or deliberate, he incurs no sin. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:173 He has forbidden you: dead meat (carrion), blood, swine-flesh, and anything (not just meat) that has been dedicated to other than God (be it a person, an idol or a tomb 5:3). But if one is forced by necessity, neither intending disobedience, nor exceeding, it will not be a violation that hurts his own 'self'. Indeed, God is Forgiving, Merciful. 134
Transliteration 2:173 Innama harrama AAalaykumualmaytata waalddama walahma alkhinzeeri wamaohilla bihi lighayri Allahi famani idturra ghayra baghinwala AAadin fala ithma AAalayhi inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
A 2:173 انما حرم عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما اهل به لغير الله فمن اضطر غير باغ ولا عاد فلا اثم عليه ان الله غفور رحيم
Edip-Layth The Professionals Who Hide the Truth 2:174 Surely, those who conceal what God has sent down of the book, and purchase with it a cheap price; they will not eat into their stomachs except the fire, and God will not speak to them on the day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they will have a painful retribution.46
The Monotheist Group 2:174 Surely, those who conceal what God has sent down of the Scripture, and they purchase with it a cheap price; they will not eat in their stomachs except the Fire, and God will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they will have a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 2:174 VERILY, as for those who suppress aught of the revelation140 which God has bestowed from on high, and barter it away for a trifling gain - they but fill their bellies with fire. And God will not speak unto them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them [of their sins]; and grievous suffering awaits them.
Rashad Khalifa Corrupted Religious Leaders Conceal the Quran's Miracle 2:174 Those who conceal GOD's revelations in the scripture, in exchange for a cheap material gain, eat but fire into their bellies. GOD will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them. They have incurred a painful retribution.30
Shabbir Ahmed 2:174 Surely, those who conceal the Book of God, and barter it away for a trifling gain, they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. God will not even address them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He make their own 'self' grow. Theirs will be an awful suffering. 135
Transliteration 2:174 Inna allatheena yaktumoona maanzala Allahu mina alkitabi wayashtaroona bihithamanan qaleelan ola-ika ma ya/kuloona fee butoonihimilla alnnara wala yukallimuhumu Allahuyawma alqiyamati wala yuzakkeehim walahum AAathabunaleemun
A 2:174 ان الذين يكتمون ما انزل الله من الكتب ويشترون به ثمنا قليلا اولئك ما ياكلون فى بطونهم الا النار ولا يكلمهم الله يوم القيمة ولا يزكيهم ولهم عذاب اليم
Edip-Layth 2:175 These are the ones who have purchased straying for guidance, and retribution for forgiveness. What made them patient towards the fire!
The Monotheist Group 2:175 These are the ones who have purchased straying for guidance, and retribution for forgiveness; they have no patience towards the Fire.
Muhammad Asad 2:175 It is they who take error in exchange for guidance, and suffering in exchange for forgiveness: yet how little do they seem to fear the fire!
Rashad Khalifa 2:175 It is they who chose the straying instead of guidance, and the retribution instead of forgiveness. Consequently, they will have to endure Hell.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:175 It is those who take error in exchange for guidance, and torment in exchange for the protection of forgiveness. How steadfast are they in their pursuit of the fire!
Transliteration 2:175 Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooalddalalata bialhuda waalAAathababialmaghfirati fama asbarahum AAala alnnari
A 2:175 اولئك الذين اشتروا الضللة بالهدى والعذاب بالمغفرة فما اصبرهم على النار
Edip-Layth 2:176 This is because God has sent down the book with truth; and those who have disputed in the book are in far opposition.
The Monotheist Group 2:176 This is because God has sent down the Scripture with truth; and those who have disputed in the Scripture are in far opposition.
Muhammad Asad 2:176 Thus it is: since it is God who bestows141 the divine writ from on high, setting forth the truth, all those who set their own views against the divine writ142 are, verily, most deeply in the wrong.
Rashad Khalifa 2:176 This is because GOD has revealed this scripture, bearing the truth, and those who dispute the scripture are the most ardent opponents.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:176 This is so, because God has revealed the Book in absolute truth; therein is no contradiction. Obviously, those who set their own views against the Book, split deeply into sects and fall into mutual disputes. 136
Transliteration 2:176 Thalika bi-anna Allahanazzala alkitaba bialhaqqi wa-inna allatheenaikhtalafoo fee alkitabi lafee shiqaqin baAAeedin
A 2:176 ذلك بان الله نزل الكتب بالحق وان الذين اختلفوا فى الكتب لفى شقاق بعيد
Edip-Layth Piety is Not Following a Set of Rituals, But 2:177 Piety is not to turn your faces towards the east and the west, but piety is one who acknowledges God and the Last day, and the angels, and the book, and the prophets, and he gives money out of love to the near relatives, and the orphans, and the needy and the wayfarer, and those who ask, and to free the slaves, and he observes the Contact prayer, and contributes towards betterment; and those who keep their pledges when they make a pledge, and those who are patient in the face of good and bad and during persecution. These are the ones who have been truthful, and they are the righteous.
The Monotheist Group 2:177 Piety is not to turn your faces towards the east and the west, but piety is one who believes in God and the Last Day, and the angels, and the Scripture, and the prophets, and who gives money out of love to the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and those who ask, and to free the slaves; and who upholds the communion, and who contributes towards betterment; as well as those who keep their pledges when they make a pledge, and those who are patient in the face of good and bad and when in despair. These are the ones who have been truthful, and they are the righteous.
Muhammad Asad 2:177 True piety does not consist in turning your faces towards the east or the west143 - but truly pious is he who believes in God, and the Last Day; and the angels, and revelation,144 and the prophets; and spends his substance - however much he himself may cherish - it - upon his near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer,145 and the beggars, and for the freeing of human beings from bondage;146 and is constant in prayer, and renders the purifying dues; and [truly pious are] they who keep their promises whenever they promise, and are patient in misfortune and hardship and in time of peril: it is they that have proved themselves true, and it is they, they who are conscious of God.
Rashad Khalifa Righteousness Defined 2:177 Righteousness is not turning your faces towards the east or the west. Righteous are those who believe in GOD, the Last Day, the angels, the scripture, and the prophets; and they give the money, cheerfully, to the relatives, the orphans, the needy, the traveling alien, the beggars, and to free the slaves; and they observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat); and they keep their word whenever they make a promise; and they steadfastly persevere in the face of persecution, hardship, and war. These are the truthful; these are the righteous.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:177 (One consequence of this schism is their pre-occupation with rituals, with each sect leaving the revelation aside and taking delight in its own set of dogmas they call religion. 30:320.) Righteousness and exponential development of the 'self' depends not on whether you turn your faces to East or West. But righteousness is that: . One has conviction in God, . And the Last Day, . And the Angels, .. And the Book, .. And the prophets. .. And that he gives of his cherished wealth to: .. Family and relatives, .. Orphans, . Widows, .. Those left helpless in the society, . basic needs, And those whose hard-earned income fails to meet their .. Those whose running businesses have stalled, .. The ones who have lost their jobs, .. Whose life has stalled for any reason, .. The disabled, . The needy wayfarer, son of the street, the homeless, the one who travels to you for assistance, .. Those who ask for help, and . Those whose necks are burdened with any kind of bondage, oppression, crushing debts and extreme hardship of labor. . (And righteous are) those who strive to establish the institution of Salaat, (2:3. 2:53) .. And help set up the Economic System of Zakaat. .. They are true to their pledge whenever they make one. . And they remain steadfast in physical or emotional distress and in times of peril. It is those who have proven themselves to be true, and it is those who are living upright. 137
Transliteration 2:177 Laysa albirra an tuwalloo wujoohakum qibalaalmashriqi waalmaghribi walakinna albirra man amanabiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri waalmala-ikatiwaalkitabi waalnnabiyyeena waataalmala AAala hubbihi thawee alqurbawaalyatama waalmasakeena waibnaalssabeeli waalssa-ileena wafee alrriqabiwaaqama alssalata waataalzzakata waalmoofoona biAAahdihim ithaAAahadoo waalssabireena fee alba/sa-iwaalddarra-i waheena alba/si ola-ikaallatheena sadaqoo waola-ika humualmuttaqoona
A 2:177 ليس البر ان تولوا وجوهكم قبل المشرق والمغرب ولكن البر من ءامن بالله واليوم الءاخر والملئكة والكتب والنبين وءاتى المال على حبه ذوى القربى واليتمى والمسكين وابن السبيل والسائلين وفى الرقاب واقام الصلوة وءاتى الزكوة والموفون بعهدهم اذا عهدوا والصبرين فى الباساء والضراء وحين الباس اولئك الذين صدقوا واولئك هم المتقون
Edip-Layth Limitation to Capital Punishment via the Rule of Equivalency and Forgiveness 2:178 O you who acknowledge, equivalent execution has been decreed for you in the cases of killings: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. Whoever is forgiven anything by his brother, then it is to be followed with good deeds and kindness towards him; that is alleviation from your Lord, and a mercy. Whoever transgresses after that, he will have a painful retribution.47
The Monotheist Group 2:178 O you who believe, equivalence has been decreed for you in the case of those who are slain; the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. Whoever is forgiven anything by his brother, then it is to be followed with good deeds and kindness towards him; that is an alleviation from your Lord, and a mercy. Whoever transgresses after that, he will have a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad 2:178 O YOU who have attained to faith! Just retribution is ordained for you in cases of killing: the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman.147 And if something [of his guilt] is remitted to a guilty person by his brother,148 this [remission] shall be adhered to with fairness, and restitution to his fellow-man shall be made in a goodly manner.149 This is an alleviation from your Sustainer, and an act of His grace. And for him who, none the less,150 wilfully transgresses the bounds of what is right, there is grievous suffering in store:
Rashad Khalifa Discouraging Capital Punishment 2:178 O you who believe, equivalence is the law decreed for you when dealing with murder - the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the female for the female. If one is pardoned by the victim's kin, an appreciative response is in order, and an equitable compensation shall be paid. This is an alleviation from your Lord and mercy. Anyone who transgresses beyond this incurs a painful retribution.31
Shabbir Ahmed 2:178 (Security of life is the cornerstone of a civilized society.) O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! The law of Just Recompense (Qisaas) has been prescribed for you in dealing with murder. If a free person has committed murder, that free person will face the law. If a servant has committed murder, that servant will face the law. And if a woman has committed murder, that woman will face the law. If the victim's kin pardons the guilty, the murderer must be appreciative and pay an equitable compensation to the kin in handsome gratitude. This pardon is a concession and mercy from your Lord. Whoever, after this, trespasses this law will have an awful doom in the Court of God. 138
Transliteration 2:178 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookutiba AAalaykumu alqisasu fee alqatla alhurrubialhurri waalAAabdu bialAAabdi waalonthabialontha faman AAufiya lahu min akheehi shay-on faittibaAAunbialmaAAroofi waadaon ilayhi bi-ihsaninthalika takhfeefun min rabbikum warahmatun famaniiAAtada baAAda thalika falahu AAathabunaleemun
A 2:178 يايها الذين ءامنوا كتب عليكم القصاص فى القتلى الحر بالحر والعبد بالعبد والانثى بالانثى فمن عفى له من اخيه شىء فاتباع بالمعروف واداء اليه باحسن ذلك تخفيف من ربكم ورحمة فمن اعتدى بعد ذلك فله عذاب اليم
Edip-Layth 2:179 Through equivalent execution, you will be protecting life, O you who possess intelligence, that you may be righteous.
The Monotheist Group 2:179 And through equivalence you will be protecting life, O people of understanding, that you may be righteous.
Muhammad Asad 2:179 for, in [the law of] just retribution, O you who are endowed with insight, there is life for you, so that you might remain conscious of God!151
Rashad Khalifa 2:179 Equivalence is a life saving law for you, O you who possess intelligence, that you may be righteous.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:179 There is life for you in the law of Just Recompense, O You who use your intellect! This is so that you may live in security. 139
Transliteration 2:179 Walakum fee alqisasi hayatunya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tattaqoona
A 2:179 ولكم فى القصاص حيوة ياولى الالبب لعلكم تتقون
Edip-Layth Write a Will 2:180 It is decreed for you that if death should come to any of you, that it is best he leaves a will for his family and relatives according to recognized norms. This is a truth for the righteous.48
The Monotheist Group 2:180 It is decreed for you that if death should come to any of you, that it is best if he leaves a will for his family and relatives out of goodness; this is a truth for the righteous.
Muhammad Asad 2:180 IT IS ordained for you, when death approaches any of you and he is leaving behind much wealth, to make bequests in favour of his parents and [other] near of kin in accordance with what is fair:152 I this is binding on all who are conscious of God.
Rashad Khalifa Write A Will 2:180 It is decreed that when death approaches, you shall write a will for the benefit of the parents and relatives, equitably. This is a duty upon the righteous.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:180 Regarding proper dispensation of property, it is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, and he is leaving behind much wealth, that he set up a will for parents and family in a decent, equitable manner. This is a binding duty on the upright. 140
Transliteration 2:180 Kutiba AAalaykum itha hadaraahadakumu almawtu in taraka khayran alwasiyyatulilwalidayni waal-aqrabeena bialmaAAroofi haqqanAAala almuttaqeena
A 2:180 كتب عليكم اذا حضر احدكم الموت ان ترك خيرا الوصية للولدين والاقربين بالمعروف حقا على المتقين
Edip-Layth 2:181 Whoever alters it after having heard, the sin will be upon those who alter it. God is Hearer, Omniscient.
The Monotheist Group 2:181 Whoever alters it after having heard, then the sin will be upon those who alter it. God is Hearer, Knowing.
Muhammad Asad 2:181 And if anyone alters such a provision._ after having come to know it, the sin of acting thus shall fall only upon those who have altered it.153 Verily, God is all-hearing, all-knowing.
Rashad Khalifa 2:181 If anyone alters a will he had heard, the sin of altering befalls those responsible for such altering. GOD is Hearer, Knower.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:181 If anyone tampers with a will after hearing it, the guilt befalls those responsible for altering it. Certainly, God is Hearer, Knower. 141
Transliteration 2:181 Faman baddalahu baAAda ma samiAAahufa-innama ithmuhu AAala allatheenayubaddiloonahu inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun
A 2:181 فمن بدله بعدما سمعه فانما اثمه على الذين يبدلونه ان الله سميع عليم
Edip-Layth 2:182 If anyone fears deviation or sin from his beneficiary, then he does not commit sin by reconciling what is between them. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group 2:182 If anyone fears harm or sin from his beneficiary, then reconcile what is between them. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad 2:182 If, however, one has reason to fear that the testator has committed a mistake or a [deliberate] wrong, and thereupon brings about a settlement between the heirs,154 he will incur no sin [thereby]. Verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
Rashad Khalifa 2:182 If one sees gross injustice or bias on the part of a testator, and takes corrective action to restore justice to the will, he commits no sin. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Shabbir Ahmed 2:182 (The one who makes a will, the testator, is likely to make errors.) So, if anyone, who has heard the will, fears some bias or diminishing of a due right, and then makes a mutually acceptable correction between the concerned parties, he will not be harming himself. Indeed, God is Absolver of imperfections, Source of all beneficence. 142
Transliteration 2:182 Faman khafa min moosinjanafan aw ithman faaslaha baynahum falaithma AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
A 2:182 فمن خاف من موص جنفا او اثما فاصلح بينهم فلا اثم عليه ان الله غفور رحيم
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End Notes
Muhammad Asad - The Message Of Quran
Muhammad Asad - End Note 139 (2:173)
I.e., all that has been dedicated or offered in sacrifice to an idol or a saint or a person considered to be "divine". For a more comprehensive enumeration of the forbidden kinds of flesh, see 5:3.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 140 (2:174)
This term is used here in its generic sense,. comprising both the Qur'an and the earlier revelations.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 141 (2:176)
Lit., "has been bestowing". Since the form nazzala implies gradualness and continuity in the process of revelation, it can best be rendered by the use of the present tense.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 142 (2:176)
Lit., "who hold discordant views about the divine writ"- i.e., either suppressing or rejecting parts of it, or denying its divine origin altogether (Razi).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 143 (2:177)
Thus, the Qur'an stresses the principle that mere compliance with outward forms does not fulfil the requirements of piety. The reference to the turning of one's face in prayer in this or that direction flows from the passages which dealt, a short while ago, with the question of the qiblah.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 144 (2:177)
In this context, the term "revelation" (al-kitab) carries, according to most of the commentators, a generic significance: it refers to the fact of divine revelation as such. As regards belief in angels, it is postulated here because it is through these spiritual beings or force's (belonging to the realm of al-ghayb, i.e., the reality which is beyond the reach of human perception) that God reveals His will to the prophets and, thus, to mankind at large.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 145 (2:177)
The expression ibn as-sabil (lit., "son of the road") denotes any person who is far from his home, and especially one who, because of this circumstance, does not have sufficient means of livelihood at his disposal (cf. Lane IV, 1302). In its wider sense it describes a person who, for any reason whatsoever, is unable to return home either temporarily or permanently: for instance, a political exile or refugee.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 146 (2:177)
Ar-raqabah (of which ar-riqab is the plural) denotes, literally, "the neck", and signifies also the whole of a human person. Metonymically, the expression fi 'r-riqab denotes "in the cause of freeing human beings from bondage", and applies to both the ransoming of captives and the freeing of slaves. By including this kind of expenditure within the essential acts of piety, the Qur'an implies that the freeing of people from bondage - and, thus, the abolition of slavery - is one of the social objectives of Islam. At the time of the revelation of the Qur'an, slavery was an established institution throughout the world, and its sudden abolition would have been economically impossible. In order to obviate this difficulty, and at the same time to bring about an eventual abolition of all slavery, the Qur'an ordains in 8:67 that henceforth only captives taken in a just war (jihad) may be kept as slaves. But even with regard to persons enslaved in this or-before the revelation of 8 : 67-in any other way, the Qur'an stresses the great merit inherent in the freeing of slaves, and stipulates it as a means of atonement for various transgressions (see, e.g., 4:92, 5:89, 58:3). In addition, the Prophet emphatically stated on many occasions that, in the sight of God, the unconditional freeing of a human being from bondage is among the most praiseworthy acts which a Muslim could perform. (For a critical discussion and analysis of all the authentic Traditions bearing on this problem, see Nayl al-Awtar VI, 199 ff.)

Muhammad Asad - End Note 147 (2:178)
After having pointed out that true piety does not consist in mere adherence to outward forms and rites, -the Qur'an opens, as it were, a new chapter relating to the problem of man's behaviour. Just as piety cannot become effective without righteous action, individual righteousness cannot become really effective in the social sense unless there is agreement within the community as to the social rights and obligations of its members: in other words, as to the practical laws which should govern the behaviour of the individual within the society and the society's attitude towards the individual and his actions. This is the innermost reason why legislation plays so great a role within the ideology of Islam, and why the Qur'an consistently intertwines its moral and spiritual exhortation with ordinances relating to practical aspects of social life. Now one of the main problems facing any society is the safeguarding of the lives and the individual security of its members: and so it is understandable that laws relating to homicide and its punishment are dealt with prominently at this place. (It should be borne in mind that "The Cow" was the first surah revealed in Medina , that is, at the time when the Muslim community had just become established as an independent social entity.) As for the term qisas occurring at the beginning of the above passage, it must be pointed out that-according to all the classical commentators-it is almost synonymous with musawah, i.e., "making a thing equal [to another thing]": in this instance, making the punishment equal (or appropriate) to the crime -a meaning which is best rendered as "just retribution" and not (as has been often, and erroneously, done) as "retaliation". Seeing that the Qur'an speaks here of "cases of killing" (fi 'I-qatla, lit., "in the matter of the killed") in general, and taking into account that this expression covers all possible cases of homicide -premeditated murder, murder under extreme provocation, culpable homicide, accidental manslaughter, and so forth-it is obvious that the taking of a life for a life (implied in the term "retaliation") would not in every case correspond to the demands of equity. (This has been made clear, for instance, in 4:92, where legal restitution for unintentional homicide is dealt with.) Read in conjunction with the term "just retribution" which introduces this passage, it is clear that the stipulation "the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman" cannot - and has not been intended to - be taken in its literal, restrictive sense: for this would preclude its application to many cases of homicide, e.g., the killing of a free man by a slave, or of a woman by a man, or vice-versa. Thus, the above stipulation must be regarded as an example of the elliptical mode of expression (ijaz) so frequently employed in the Qur'an, and can have but one meaning, namely: "if a free man has committed the crime, the free man must be punished; if a slave has committed the crime. ..", etc.-in other words, whatever the status of the guilty person, he or she (and he or she alone) is to be punished in a manner appropriate to the crime.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 148 (2:178)
Lit., "and he to whom [something] is remitted by his brother". There is no linguistic justification whatever for attributing-as some of the commentators have done-the pronoun "his" to the victim and, thus, for assuming that the expression "brother" stands for the victim's "family" or "blood relations". The pronoun "his" refers, unquestionably, to the guilty person; and since there is no reason for assuming that by "his brother" a real brother is meant, we cannot escape the conclusion that it denotes here "his brother in faith" of "his fellow-man" -in either of which terms the whole community is included. Thus, the expression "if something is remitted to a guilty person by his brother" (i.e., by the community or its legal organs) may refer either to the establishment of mitigating circumstances in a case of murder, or to the finding that the case under trial falls within the categories of culpable homicide or manslaughter - in which cases no capital punishment is to be exacted and restitution is to be made by the payment of an indemnity called diyyah (see 4:92) to the relatives of the victim. In consonance with the oft-recurring Qur'anic exhortation to forgiveness and forbearance, the "remission" mentioned above may also (and especially in cases of accidental manslaughter) relate to a partial or even total waiving of any claim to indemnification.

Muhammad Asad - End Note 149 (2:178)
Lit., "and restitution to him in a goodly manner", it being understood that the pronoun in ilayhi ("to him") refers to the "brother in faith" or "fellow-man" mentioned earlier in this sentence. The word ada (here translated as "restitution") denotes an act of acquitting oneself of a duty or a debt (cf. Lane I, 38), and stands here for the act of legal reparation imposed on the guilty person. This reparation or restitution is to be made "in a goodly manner" -by taking into account the situation of the accused and, on the latter's part, by acquitting himself of his obligation willingly and sincerely (cf. ManarII, 129).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 150 (2:178)
Lit., "after this"- i.e., after the meaning of what constitutes "just retribution" (qisas) has been made clear in the above ordinance (Razi).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 151 (2:179)
I.e., "there is a safeguard for you, as a community, so that you might be able to live in security, as God wants you to live". Thus, the objective of qisas is the protection of the society, and not "revenge".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 152 (2:180)
The word khayr occurring in this sentence denotes "much wealth" and not simply "property": and this explains the injunction that one who leaves much wealth behind should make bequests to particularly deserving members of his family in addition to - and preceding the distribution of-the legally-fixed shares mentioned in 4:11-12. This interpretation of khayr is supported by sayings of `a'ishah and `Ali ibn Abi Talib, both of them referring to this particular verse (cf. Zamakhshari and Baydawi).

Muhammad Asad - End Note 153 (2:181)
Lit., "and as for him who alters it" -i.e., after the testator's death- "after having heard it, the sin thereof is only upon those who alter it": that is, not on anyone who may have unwittingly benefited by this alteration. It is to be noted that the verb sami'a (lit., "he heard") has also the connotation of "he came to know".

Muhammad Asad - End Note 154 (2:182)
Lit., "between them" - i.e., a settlement overriding the testamentary provisions which, by common consent of the parties concerned, are considered unjust.

Shabbir Ahmed -
Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 134 (2:173)
6:121, 6:145. Ithm = A violation that drags down the 'self' = An act that hurts the human 'self' = Anything that makes it difficult to rise up = An impediment to activity = Any action that depletes individual or communal energy. Ghafarah = Helmet and armor. Forgiveness involves protection from the detrimental effects of faults

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 135 (2:174)
Those who conceal the Book = The ones who start making their own lists of the lawful and unlawful, and thus, usurp the Divine Right of lawmaking. Also note that this verse clearly mentions the ongoing growth and evolution of the 'self' in the Hereafter. Tazkiah from Zaku = Growth = Purity from vice = Development of the 'self' = Self-actualization

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 136 (2:176)
4:82, 25:30. Shaqq and derivatives = To split = Fall apart = Schism = Fall into disputes = Opposition = Oppose one another = Splitting of personality = Break apart the unity = Enmity

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 137 (2:177)
2:4, 3:91-92 Yateem, Miskeen, Ibn-is-Sabeel, Fir-Riqaab, carry all the meanings rendered above. Please also note that the Qur'an has named above the well-known five "Articles of faith." But belief in Taqdeer = Predetermined destiny, has been interjected in the fabricated Ajami accounts as the sixth article of faith by 'Imams', making Muslims fatalistic in their thought and behavior. The Qur'an nowhere mentions Taqdeer or the predestined fates of individuals. Qadar or Taqdeer always denote the law, the due measure of all things appointed by God. And man determines his own destiny by following or defying those laws

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 138 (2:178)
Equitable compensation takes into account the financial situation of the accused. See 4:92-93, 5:32, 17:33, 42:40. Color, creed, race, status or gender of the victim or the offender will have no bearing before the Justice System

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 139 (2:179)
So, Qisaas is a deterrent and not revenge

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 140 (2:180)
Any oversight or leftover from the will shall be distributed according to portions Divinely assigned in 4:11-12. Please remember that most Muslims forget this point, and some 'authorities' even revoke 4:11-12! How can a father will to impart equal portions to two of his sons when one of them might be righteous and needy, and the other one wicked and prodigal? 'When death approaches any of you' carries the reminder that it is always close and unpredictable. At the same time, it takes into account the final assets of a person

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 141 (2:181)
A will shall be attested by two trustworthy witnesses. 5:106

Shabbir Ahmed - End Note 142 (2:182)
Ithm = A violation that drags down human potential or harms the 'self'

Edip-Layth - Quran: A Reformist Translation
Edip-Layth - End Note 46 (2:174)
The religious scholars who are trying to hide the miraculous mathematical structure of the Quran and its message demonstrate the attitude criticized by these verses.

Edip-Layth - End Note 47 (2:178)
The Quran does not encourage the death penalty. Various rules are put in place to save lives, including the lives of murderers. The family of the victim might be satisfied with monetary compensation, which is encouraged by the Quran. Furthermore, the death penalty is not applicable to every murder case. For instance, if a woman kills a man or vice versa, the murderer cannot be sentenced to death; instead, the convict will be punished by society with a lighter punishment. If the murderer is not deemed a danger to society, monetary compensation or mandatory work might be more useful, productive, and rehabilitative than a prison sentence. The death penalty, like all criminal penalties, is not imposed and carried out by individuals, but by society and in accordance with accepted procedural rules. The so-called "honor killing" is a practice of ignorant and dishonorable people, and has nothing to do with islam.

Edip-Layth - End Note 48 (2:180)
The sectarian teachings claim that this verse was abrogated by hadith stating, "there is no more leaving inheritance through will for relatives." Prophet Muhammad will complain about those who have traded the Quran with fabricated hadith (25:30).

Rashad Khalifa - The Final Testament
Rashad Khalifa - End Note 30 (2:174)
Despite their recognition of God's mathematical miracle in the Quran, the corrupted religious leaders tried for many years to conceal thisawesome miracle. Many of them admitted that they resented the fact that RashadKhalifa, not them, was blessed with the miracle.

Rashad Khalifa - End Note 31 (2:178)
The Quran clearly discourages capital punishment. Every kind of excuse is provided to spare lives, including the life of the murderer. Thevictim's kin may find it better, under certain circumstances, to spare thelife of the murderer in exchange for an equitable compensation. Also capitalpunishment is not applicable if, for example, a woman kills a man, or viceversa.

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